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Redressing the Balance - A Commonsense Approach to Causation (Difford 2011)

A Note from the IIAI Executive


Before you read the book, one or two things should be clarified. The Institute has no philosophy on causation. As the many thousands who have met Difford for instance will know, he reflects that view when he typically says that an investigator must gather his or her evidence objectively and report accordingly.

How each individual ultimately verifies the causal findings they put forward is another matter entirely. For many, it is that which is the critical matter. Whether those findings are seen to hold water or not will depend upon the questions that are posed at them and the responses that the investigator is able to provide. "Redressing the Balance" assists such critical question and answer sessions.

On the back cover of the book, I offer that "if" certain of Difford's findings are correct, elements of the risk and safety management profession will need to undergo a paradigm shift regarding their views on causation and the causes of accidents. The critical qualifier there is the word "if". The answer to a question regarding whether certain of Difford's findings are correct or not is, therefore, one that is left solely to you, the reader. Having said that, finding after finding reveals itself to be irrefutable and it is hoped, informed by thorough readings of the book, that you will stay abreast of the intense International debate that "Redressing the Balance - A Commonsense Approach to Causation" has initiated.


Alan Dell MBE Hon FIIAI









Code of Conduct






Difford's challenge

to the American Society of Safety Engineers

The Institute of Industrial Accident Investigators. All rights reserved.